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BIOL 483: Senior Thesis

CSE Style Manual

CSE style of citations was created by the Council of Science Editors, as the most authoritative reference for citations used in most scientific publications. This manual includes sections reflecting different fields of scientific inquiry and publishing.

Using the CSE style of citation creates consistency in writing and explorations of the many different areas of scientific studies and other related fields. It allows for quick scanning of key points and sources in writing and published materials.  Understanding CSE Style with help students further explore information and resources in their research.

In CSE style there are three types of in-text citation that can be used: 

Citation-Sequence - uses numbers within the text to refer to the end reference (see page 550 of the manual listed below).

Name-Year - uses the surname of author and year of publication in parentheses (see page 551 of the manual listed below).

Citation-Name: similar to the Citation-Sequence style uses numbers with the text to refer to the end reference, however, the end references are listed in alphabetical order by author then title (see page 554 of the manual listed below).

The citations in the guide are general citations from the 8th edition of the Scientific Style and Format reference resource shown below. For more information see the reference listed below and remember you can always ask a librarian!

Basic book citation example:

Citation-sequence and citation-name:

Schott J, Priest J. Leading antenatal classes: a practical guide. 2nd ed. Boston (MA): Books for Midwives; 2002.

This example shows the authors' names, last name first followed by first initial, then the title of the book, edition, place of publication, publisher, and finally date of publication. (This example comes from page 592 of the Scientific Style and Format 8th ed.)

Name-sequence:

Schott J, Priest J. 2002. Leading antenatal classes: a practical guide. 2nd ed. Boston (MA): Books for Midwives.

This example shows the authors' names, last name first followed by first initial, the date of publication, then the title of the book, edition, place of publication, and finally the publisher (This example comes from page 592 of the Scientific Style and Format 8th ed.)

For in-text citation information see the CSE Basics tab of this guide.

For further examples of book citations see the manual listed below.

Basic article citation example:

Citation-Sequence and citation-name:

Smart N, Fang ZY, Marwick TH. A practical guide to exercise training for heart failure patients. J Card Fail. 2003;9(1):49-58

This example shows the authors' names, last name first followed by first initial, then the title of the article, abbreviated journal title, date of publication, volume, the issue in parenthesis, and finally page numbers. (This example comes from page 582 of the Scientific Style and Format 8th ed.)

Name-year:

Smart N, Fang ZY, Marwick TH. 2003. A practical guide to exercise training for heart failure patients. J Card Fail. 9(1):49-58

This example shows the authors' names, last name first followed by first initial, the date of publication, then the title of the article, abbreviated journal title, volume, the issue in parenthesis, and finally page numbers. (This example comes from page 582 of the Scientific Style and Format 8th ed.)

For in-text citation information see the CSE Basics tab of this guide.

For further examples of article citations see the manual listed below.

Basic website citation example:

Citation-Sequence and citation-name:

APSnet: plant pathology. St Paul (MN): American Phytopathological Association; c1994-2005 [accessed 2005 Jun 20]. http://www.apsnet.org

This example shows the title of the website home page, place of publication, publisher, date of publication, date accessed in brackets, and finally the URL.  (This example comes from page 628 of the Scientific Style and Format 8th ed.)

Name-year:

APSnet: plant pathology. c1994-2005. St Paul (MN): American Phytopathological Association; [accessed 2005 Jun 20]. http://www.apsnet.org

This example shows the title of the website home page, date of publication, place of publication, publisher, date accessed in brackets, and finally the URL.  (This example comes from page 630 of the Scientific Style and Format 8th ed.)

For in-text citation information see the CSE Basics tab of this guide.

For further examples of article citations see the manual listed below.

For all other types of sources Including interviews, panel discussions, images, social media, and more; as well as in-text citations, other resources, and samples see the resource below.

APA Style Manual

APA style was created by the American Psychological Association for use by professionals and students preparing papers in psychology, nursing, social work, communications, education, business, and engineering among others.

Why use APA style? So that those in the discipline listed above have consistency in their exploration of information in their fields of study being able to scan quickly for key points and sources. Understanding APA Style will also help students further explore information and resources in their research.

Papers written in APA style should be double spaced.  The page with the citations should start a new page and be labeled "References", any citations longer than one line should be double spaced, and for any citations longer than one line, use hanging indents on the second and all subsequent lines of the citation. If appendices are includes they will follow the References pages.

The citations in this guide are general citations from the 7th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association shown below.  For more information and more details on the formatting, writing, and citing of papers see the links below. And remember you can always ask a librarian!

Basic book citation example:

       Burgess, R. (2019). Rethinking global health: Frameworks of power. Routledge.

This example shows first author name, last name followed by first initial, in parenthesis the year of publication, title in italics ending with publisher name. (Citation found on page 321 of Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association seventh edition.)

In-text citation examples:

          Parenthetical citation: (Burgess, 2019)

          Narrative citation: Burgess (2019)

For further examples of different types of textual works see the resources below.

 

Basic article citation example:

      Anderson, M. (2018). Getting consistent with consequences. Educational Leadership, 76(1), 26-33.

This example shows first the author, last name followed by the first initial, then the year of publication in parenthesis, followed by article title, then the journal title in italics next is volume number in italics followed by issue number in parenthesis, and last is the page rage of the article. (Citation found on page 317 of Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association seventh edition.)

In-text citation examples:

          Parenthetical citation: (Anderson, 2018)

          Narrative citation: Anderson (2018)

For further examples and examples of different types of articles follow the links below.

Basic webpage on a website citation example:

Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018, January 23). People at high risk of developing flu-related complications. https://www.cdc.gov/flu/about/disease/high_risk.htm 

This example starts with the author in this case the group that authored the piece the Center for Disease Control. Nest in parenthesis is the date the webpage was published, followed by the title in italics.  Last comes the webpage URL. (Please note that as this citation is longer than one line the second line should have a hanging indent)(Citation found on page 351 of Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association seventh edition.)

In-text citation examples:

          Parenthetical citation: (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2018)

          Narrative citation: Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2018)

For other types of electronic and webpage, citations see the links and resources below.

 

For all other types of sources including reports and gray literature, Conference presentations and proceedings, dissertations and theses, and more, including intext citations see the resources and links below.

For legal citations guidance beyond the APA Publication Manual visit the Legal Information Institute at Cornell Law School at https://www.law.cornell.edu/ and https://www.law.cornell.edu/citation/