Consider the wide variety of misinformation on the Internet that you have to wade through to find reliable information and news.
- Fake News: Sources that entirely fabricate information, disseminate deceptive content, or grossly distort actual news reports.
- Altered Photographs: Photographs that have been changed using software or manipulation of the negative to enhance the image or deceive the viewer. Many changes are sophisticated enough that only software or a keen eye can detect the alteration, unlike the Bernie memes.
- DeepFakes: Use of video software to create events that never happened or distort a person's statements for propaganda purposes or to discredit public figures for political gain.
- Satire: Sources that use humor, irony, exaggeration, ridicule, satire, and false information to comment on current events.
- State-sponsored News: Sources in repressive states operating under government sanctions and control. Propaganda.
- Junk Science: Sources that promote discredited conspiracy theories, naturalistic fallacies, and scientifically false or dubious claims.
- Hate News: Sources that actively promote racism, misogyny, homophobia, and other forms of bias and discrimination.
- Clickbait: Sources that provide generally credible content, but use exaggerated, misleading, or questionable headlines, social media descriptions, and/or images.
And even news and information that looks reliable because of where you found it should still be verified.
- Proceed With Caution: Sources that may be reliable but whose contents require further verification.
- Political: Sources that provide generally verifiable information in support of certain points of view or political orientations.
- Credible: Sources that circulate news and information in a manner consistent with traditional and ethical practices in journalism. (Remember: even credible sources sometimes rely on clickbait-style headlines or occasionally make mistakes. No news organization is perfect, which is why a healthy news diet consists of multiple sources of information).
For more details, visit the Evaluating Sources Research Guide
Adapted from Cornell University's "Fake News, Propaganda, and Misinformation: Learning to Critically Evaluate Media Sources: Unreliable News Content - Types"
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