There are a number of other types of citation styles used in various fields. We will mention a couple here and include the resource to find more information on them should you need it. As always you can see a librarian for more information.
ACS Style is the citation style for The American Chemical Society, depending on the journal your lab or instructor you may use either the CSE or the ACS, make sure you check beforehand to make use you are using the correct citation style. See The ACS Style Guide: Effective Communication of Scientific Information text listed below for more information.
AIP Style is a citation style commonly used in Physics Astrophysics and Astronomy. For more information see the Cite Right text listed below.
ASME Style is the citation style for the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. It primarily uses a form of the Chicago Manual of Style for its reference format. Here is the References page for AME with some examples of citations.
There are also other various styles used in mathematics, computer science, engineering, and more including IEEE and ASCE citations. For information on some of these see the Cite Right text listed below.